Depending on which state or territory you live in across Australia, all learners licences are given out by each states respective roads and transport authority. If as a resident of Victoria you're unsure where to go for yours, this quick guide to getting started will help you out.
If you're from Victoria, VicRoads is the place to go for your licence. Here's an interesting fact; a VicRoads licence is cheaper than a NSW RTA licence! You can find more information at the VicRoads website.
If you are from other states, here are some informations you might find useful:
If you hail from Western Australia, the department of Transport handles all manner of licencing. Here's another interesting tidbit; light cars no longer require registration stickers on light vehicles.
For those learners from NSW, the RTA (Roads & Traffic Authority) issues all licences in that state. They provide a lot of other information as well at their website which you can visit here
Remember, you must have a learners licence before attending a driving school.